Among the important fertility studies that a man must undergo for an assisted reproduction treatment are the semen analysis or seminogram. In this way, it is possible to know parameters such as: concentration, mobility and morphology of the spermatozoa.
It is possible to study the semen sample, thanks to the fact that the man is asked to provide a sample obtained through masturbation, complying with a period of abstinence of between 3 and 5 days.
Depending on the couple’s case, an in-depth fertility study will be recommended. The semen sample is studied in the laboratory for tests such as: FISH, fragmentation or Fertile chip.
The name FISH comes from Fluorescence in situ hybridization. This means: Fluorescence in situ hybridization. It is a semen study technique that allows us to know how many chromosome copies there are per spermatozoon and thus calculate a percentage of genetic alteration.
In other words, this technique allows us to know if the sperm have 23 copies of chromosomes as they should or if there is any alteration. From this, a diagnosis can be made and the correct path can be chosen for the couple undergoing reproductive treatment.
If there is a chromosomal alteration in the sperm, it is recommended to do other studies such as Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis or PGD. In this way the embryos can be biopsied and the most genetically suitable embryo can be chosen for transfer.
It is indicated, above all, when the couple has gone through: several implantation failures, when the embryo is implanted and then there are miscarriages, in case of oligozoospermia or severe teratozoospermia.
The fragmentation study is a test that analyzes the sperm in order to diagnose the percentage of fragmented sperm DNA. In this way, a more complete diagnosis of the man’s fertility can be made in order to increase the woman’s chances of pregnancy and delivery.
These breaks, or DNA fragmentations, are studied in the head of the spermatozoon and, on many occasions, are directly linked to implantation failures, infertility and miscarriages. In the event that this test is altered, it is advisable to perform a Fertile chip.
This is a study recommended to minimize the fragmented biological material and thus be able to recover “healthy” spermatozoa in order to create quality embryos.
This two-chamber system allows the selection of the seminal sample so that those spermatozoa with the best prognosis will migrate from one chamber to the other, thus leaving aside the seminal sample with DNA alteration.
Frequently asked questions
- When are these studies indicated? These studies are indicated, above all, for men over 45 years of age, suffering from varicocele and in cases where low embryo quality, implantation failure and/or repeated miscarriages have been observed.
- Why are these studies recommended? They are recommended to determine the cause of these failures and to improve the pregnancy rate.